hard coral identification

While there’s many ways to distinguish Zoas from its relatives, here’s the most essential tips to know: The skeleton of these corals is slowly secreted by the epidermis at the base of each coral polyp. These stand for large polyp stony and small polyp stony, though LPS are sometimes referred to as long polyp stony. Scuba Diver Life It is a great beginner coral and introduction into seeing if your water is stable enough to add SPS further down the line. It’s listed as vulnerable because recruitment and survival rates of juveniles is low. Montastraea grows in a range of colors. The Caribbean elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) is a robust species that forms large colonies that can grow to be bigger than a human. There is no telling what color a Scolymia will be, which is what makes searching for this coral so much fun. Staghorn coral. But diving on a Caribbean reef can be overwhelming, with so much to see. The polyps of this coral extend during the day giving it a fuzzy appearance. The Birdsnest is a tree-like coral that grows multiple pointy branches and comes in pinks, greens, and purples. The corallites of this coral (Orbicella faveolata) are much smaller than those of the great star coral. Knowing some basic Caribbean coral identification will enrich every dive. We cannot be held responsible for any errors on the site and for any actions you may take after viewing its content. As the coral grows, it forms lumps and bumps all over the surface of the colony. There are two species of Scolymia; S. cubensis and S. wellsi. Most of the LPS hard corals produce long sweeper tentacles which they use to keep any other organisms a safe distance away. 2011) Keep your eyes peeled for bright orange or pink colonies. Search for the wide, grooved ridges to identify this coral. Florent's Guide To The Caribbean Reefs Fish, Corals and Creatures - Brown Algae - Green Algae - Red Algae Hard corals are made of a rigid calcium carbonate (limestone) and appear very much like rocks. This creates a three-dimensional lattice, perfect for juvenile habitat. Here are a few nice photos, pictures of this SPS/LPS member of the Caryophylliidae family, which is commonly known as Fox, Jasmine, and Ridge Coral. This coral grows anywhere from caves to the brightest shallow reefs. They have much larger fleshy polyps than those of the small polyp stony (SPS) corals. © 2020 All Rights Reserved. Pillar coral is rare on most Caribbean reefs. Each polyp secretes a hard exoskeleton made up of calcium carbonate and a chalky internal skeleton that stays in place even after they die. Hard corals are of two types: LPS and SPS. The LPS corals are generally larger calcareous corals. This type of coral is common in the Caribbean and several species form plates and blades with intricate corallites. The rate that this occurs depends on the species. Live Coral Care. Therefore, we consider them a reef-building coral. This coral (Porites astreoides) is named for its vibrant yellow color. Mexico’s Best Dive Destinations Part 1: Socorro Island, Updates on the Tragic Death of Rob Stewart, Bloody Bay Marine Park: Little Cayman’s Biggest Attraction. The book finishes with an exciting section of photographs demonstrating successful reef aquariums. Here are stony Family Faviidae, Genus Leptastrea and Cyphastrea species corals photographed in the Hawaiian Islands by Keoki and Yuko Stender. Corallites are connected at the base, and colonies can grow quite large with hundreds of polyps. Star, Green Star, and Daisy Polyps (Pachyclavularia) These good starter corals, commonly known … Although some species are solitary, most are colonial. Soft corals are flexible and lack a solid skeleton; they are instead supported by microscopic, spike-like ‘spicules’, designed to deter predators such as fish. Colonies can be several feet across and you’ll find them in all habitats. Learn how to create a happy, healthy home for your pet. Dendrophylliidae family members, here are photos and pictures of beautiful Genus Tubastraea corals, which are stony polyped or SPS/LPS species commonly known as Colonial, Golden and Orange Cup, and Sun, Black Sun, and Sunflower Coral. It grows fast when it is happy and frags really well. NA13NOS4820012 . Hard corals are hermatypes, or reef-building corals, and need tiny algae called zooxanthellae (pronounced zo-zan-THEL-ee) to survive. Florida’s common corals. Scleractinia, also called stony corals or hard corals, are marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard skeleton. As the name implies, this coral grows into large colonies. Thankfully, as long as you keep a few tips in mind, identification becomes much easier. CORAL IDENTIFICATION GALLERY This page consist of the groupings of stony corals, octocorals, cup corals, encrusting and tube corals. Here at Tidal Gardens we try to track down the most beautiful corals we can find and propagate them for reef aquarium hobbyists around the country. Stan and Debbie have worked in the aquarium fish field for over three decades and written 300+ articles about pet fish. The founding polyp settles and starts to secrete calcium carbonate to … A hard, calcium-carbonate skeleton is the definitive feature of hard corals. Having reef-keeping experience is invaluable to successfully keeping hard corals. Here are stony Family Faviidae, Genus Leptastrea and Cyphastrea species corals photographed in the Hawaiian Islands by Keoki and Yuko Stender. Generally, when we … 650 Castro Street Most corals can only be safely identified to species by microscopic examination of the skeleton. It includes a summary and pictures of corals known to occur in the Marshall Islands. So keeping stony corals is itself a step beyond a simple or beginner reef. Photos and pictures of Acropora species Bottlebrush, Branching, Brier, Bushy, Cat's Paw, Cluster, Elkhorn, Staghorn, Table/Tabletop Acropora corals, and Montipora species named Plate, Velvet/Velvet Finger Coral, Encrusting and Whorled Montipora. Corals are either hard or soft. Utter chaos, Fire and Ice. Photo courtesy U.S. Geological Survey. Updated educational material prepared for Government observers on the identification of protected corals known to be caught incidental to fishing. Nicole (Nikki) Helgason is a PADI Dive Instructor with 10 years of professional dive experience. This coral forms large plates that spread along the sea floor or on the sides of rocky reefs, but the first things that will catch your eye with rough cactus coral (Mycetophyllia ferox) are the bright pink corallites. coral-compactus-western-australia-hard-coral-genus-identification-guide-version-11 Videos from the field During our 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 field trips, the WA Museum produced a range of videos documenting our research work in the remote and rugged waters of the Kimberley. Learning how to identify coral species and other marine life is tricky. The color is always creamy white or yellow. Calcium carbonate sclerites visible inside Sinularia dura soft coral From Acropora to Volcano Corals, browse this large collection of Subclass Hexacorallia member SPS/LPS (Small/Large Polyped Stony) coral photos to view pictures and identify all types of hard corals that are commonly and rarely kept in reef aquariums. Acropora cervicornis is the only staghorn coral in the Caribbean, but any Acropora species around the world that forms long, thick branches is considered a staghorn coral. The degree of extension of the tentacles depends upon the amount of light, current, and whether the coral is feeding or not. Although Mycetophyllia have a soft, fleshy appearance they are hard corals, sporting a hard skeleton underneath. Commonly referred to as Elegant or Elegance, and Wonder Coral, here are photos, pictures of stony polyped or SPS/LPS Genus Catalaphyllia species corals, which are members of the Caryophylliidae family. Acropora cervicornis Staghorn Coral SPS hard corals are generally considered more difficult to keep than the LPS or soft corals and are not recommended for beginners. SPS Hard Corals In general, the Small Polyped Stony corals have small polyps on a calcareouss skeleton. During the day, you might wonder how this coral (Eusmilia fastigiata) got its name. The scientific name for lettuce coral is (Agaricia). Zoanthids Identification. Birdsnest Coral is one of the easiest SPS corals to keep. Eusmilia grows into trumpet-like corallites around one inch long. It can be difficult to identify some species with certainty, especially underwater, without examining the skeletal structure of the calices (cups inhabited by individual polyps). This coral identification training manual provides an introduction to the characteristics used to identify scleractinian corals. Hard corals grow in colonies and are the architects of coral reefs. I can still remember how nervous I was.My hands were (almost) shaking when I pulled the rock up to the surface and delicately placed it in a bowl of water that I held below the surface, so that the Mushrooms wouldn’t be exposed to the air. Below are 11 common species of hard coral that you can find while scuba diving in the Caribbean, as well as some tips on how to identify them. Members of the stony Faviidae family commonly referred to as Crater Coral in Hawai'i, here are photos of Genus Leptastrea corals in their many different forms, including Horizontal Encrusting (typical and odd color), Massive Exsert, Vertical (Rugose, Cerioid, Crowded, odd colors), and smooth variations. Solitary disk corals, (Scolymia sp.) Guide to Caribbean Coral Identification. Nicole has a bachelor's degree in coastal geography from the University of Victoria and is passionate about coral reefs. How to Feed Corals in a Saltwater Aquarium, How the Toadstool Mushroom Leather Coral Sheds Its Skin, 10 Best Angelfish That Are Reef Tank Safe. Corals For Sale. I want to inspire scuba divers to explore the reef with new eyes. You’ll find this common coral on all parts of the reef, from the shallowest to the deepest. Pillar coral (Dendrogyra cylindrus) is one of the Caribbean’s most unique corals. Large Polyp Stony Corals (LPS) are the builders of calcium carbonate reef structures found in the wild. Scolymia are the most colorful coral in the Caribbean, appearing in bright red, pinks, greens, gray, purple and brown. Hard corals are generally broken down into two categories; large polyp stony (LPS) corals and small polyp stony (SPS) corals. Nicole has taught scuba diving and managed dive centers around the world. Certain tropical sea anemones (class Anthozoa) may be a metre in diameter, and some temperate ones are nearly that tall. Hard corals act as building blocks for the Reef. Commonly referred to as Frogspawn, Hammer, Anchor, Grape, Octopus, Torch, Pom-Pom Coral, and same name "Branching" relatives, here are photos and pictures of Genus Euphyllia species stony polyped or SPS/LPS corals of the Caryophylliidae family. Report coral reef impacts at EORmarianas.org CORAL BLEACHING What to include in your report: As the coral polyps grow, they create a structure called a corallite, which is the polyps’ home. The biggest difference, as the name implies, is that hard-coral polyps form hard, calcium carbonate skeletons. The mountainous star coral forms large sprawling colonies with peaked ridges running down the side of the colony, which is why we call it “mountainous.” Orbicella is common in the Caribbean and grows in mostly blue, gray, yellow, and brown. But on a night dive, you’ll see a large, fleshy, flower-like polyp emerge from the skeleton to catch a passing meal. Caribbean elkhorn coral is endangered, with coral-restoration projects in the region focusing mainly on restoring elkhorn and staghorn acropora species. In our first Caribbean coral identification story, we talked about 10 common stony corals.Today we’ll cover 10 common soft corals. Coral List Central Corals Directory Corals Selection Guide Corals Information & Pricing Acropora Sale Acclimating Corals Receiving Tranship Corals Shipping Information Our E-mail Home Phone: (866) 874-7639 or (855) 225-8086 Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm Central Pictures of the most common saltwater aquarium trade stony polyped or SPS/LPS corals of the Oculinidae family, these photos are primarily of Genus Galaxea species that inhabit Pacific reefs that are commonly named Galaxy, as well as Crystal, Star, Brittle, and Durian Coral. In many instances they are either branching or plated. Stony corals, also called hard corals (as opposed to soft corals, like sea fans), are the reef-builders of the coral world. Staghorn Coral – Acropora cervicornis. Fruit Loops, Orange bam bam, Red Hornets. A thriving ocean depends on a healthy reef because as corals grow, they build complex habitats with lots of nooks and crannies for juvenile fish. Some varieties of LPS such as Favites can grow very quickly while some massive LPS like Trachyphyllia can take years to grow an inch. In most cases, a hard coral consists of hundreds, thousands or even millions of individual coral polyps living together as a colony.They have six (or multiples of six) smooth tentacles. Once you stop looking at the reef as mere backdrop, each dive becomes more exciting. Hard corals. Other articles where Stony coral is discussed: cnidarian: Size range and diversity of structure: …hydroids, hydrocorals, and soft and hard corals, however, proliferate asexually into colonies, which can attain much greater size and longevity than their component polyps. It is brown to yellow-brown with a pale tip on the end of each branch. The biggest difference between them is that stony corals have a hard calcium-carbonate skeleton while soft corals are flexible. This guide is a revision of the DOC Coral Identification Guide (Tracey et al. More commonly, you’ll see small colonies with a dozen or more corallites. They have several uniform lines running from the top of the corallite, giving it a star like appearance. How do they differ? The book details how to successfully cultivate corals in captivity and also features the identification and care of numerous coral and giant clam species. This coral forms wide, brain-like ridges, with a noticeable groove in the center of each ridge. Knowing some basic Caribbean coral identification means you’ll enrich your experience, so you’ll see beyond the bustling reef fish on each dive. In particular, we love the rare and exotic corals that are seldom seen in captivity. Sometimes the last ‘s’ in LPS and SPS is also referred to as scleractinian so small polyp scleractinian, as all hard corals, belong to the order Scleractinia. Characteristics of Stony Corals Secrete a skeleton made of limestone (calcium carbonate). California 94041. Stony corals are more demanding and take a more dedicated effort. Although none of these hard corals known as Volcano and Crater Corals resemble the "true brain" Colpophyllia of the Caribbean, they are sometimes referred to as such in Hawai'i. Below are 11 common species of hard coral that you can find while scuba diving in the Caribbean, as well as some tips on how to identify them. Learn more about stony corals - what they look like, how many species there are, and where they live. The first coral I ever fragged was a mushroom coral, and I waited FOREVER before I developed the courage to frag it, for the first time. Although none of these hard corals known as Volcano and Crater Corals resemble the "true brain" Colpophyllia of the Caribbean, they are sometimes referred to as such in Hawai'i. As the branches grow, they fuse together to form broad branches, which break apart into flat blades near the edges of the colony. With some of the less demanding inhabitants you can hone your skills. They form when colonies of coral polyps produce limestone skeletons to support themselves. 2008) and complements: • Guide to Common Deepsea Invertebrates in New Zealand Waters (Tracey et al. The individual polyps, which can retract within the coralite, are marked by a cylindrical body and possess an oral disc surrounded by tentacles, forming a ring. Corals fall into two general categories: hard and soft coral. Worldwidecorals.com is a good place to start. In case you are not satisfied with the quality, there is always an option to buy them online. Zoanthid Taxonomy & Identification for Reefers. Zoas aren’t any different. Pictures of members of the stony polyped or SPS/LPS Poritidae family commonly referred to as Daisy, Flowerpot, and Ball Coral, here are photos, pictures of popular Genus Goniopora species reef corals. Pictures of two primary genera of the Acroporidae family that together makes up almost one-third of all reef-building corals. Genus Nemenzophyllia consists of only one known species, N. turbida. Diseases and parasites, and methods for controlling algae are also featured. Hard corals—including such species as brain coral and elkhorn coral—create skeletons out of calcium carbonate (also known as limestone), a hard substance that eventually becomes rock. If you are looking for coral you’ve found the right place. Mountain View The information listed on this site is to be used as a reference and is only our opinion/suggestion. As this coral grows and completes its life cycle, dead elkhorn skeletons add rock and mass to the reef. The branches of this coral are particularly vulnerable to errant fin kicks, so be careful when swimming around these corals. Hard corals, which have polyps that produce a calcium carbonate skeleton to protect and support them, are building blocks for reefs. It provides key-like summary descriptions of the most useful characters used to distinguish between morphologically similar species. These types of corals are so widespread that you can find them in almost every local fish store. The colonies can build large domes or more encrusting forms along the sea floor. Although hard corals possess a hard skeleton known as coralite, they also possess the soft parts commonly found on other types of coral. Large Polyp Stony Corals are generally larger calcareous corals with large fleshy polyps. The scientific name for grooved brain coral is Diploria labyrinthiformis. There are about 70 species of stony or reef-building corals recorded at normal diving depths in Hawai'i to date. Soft corals on the other hand are held together by a jelly-like mesoglea and rigid, spiny structures called sclerites hold together soft coral polyps. In the shallows, great star coral (Montastraea cavernosa) forms large domes or wide columns, but in deeper, darker water, this coral tends to spread out wide to catch more of the available light. When the polyps are retracted, the skeleton has corallites that twist and turn throughout the colony, giving it a maze-like appearance. Encrusting corals • Form sheets over hard surfaces Soft corals • Feathery tentacles • Flowy, no hard skeleton Funded by NOAA CRCP grant no. The Caribbean staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) is an important reef-building species because the long, pointed branches intersect as they grow upward towards the sun. The surface is covered with small, protruding round cups. Staghorn coral forms antler-like branches growing in tangled dense thickets. are the diamond in the rough. Hi there, my name is Nicole and I am in love with coral! The individual animals are known as polyps and have a cylindrical body crowned by an oral disc in which a mouth is fringed with tentacles. Pictures of the members of the Dendrophylliidae family, a photo collection of Genus Turbinaria corals, which are stony polyped or SPS/LPS species that are commonly known as Turban, Scroll, Yellow Cup, Pagoda, and Vase Coral. This coral can be gray, yellow, or brown, and some have bright green polyps. Pictures of commonly referred to collectively as Torch, Trumpet, Candy Cane, Bullseye, and Cat's Eye Coral, here are photos, pictures of Genus Caulastrea species corals that are members of the stony polyped or SPS/LPS Faviidae family. As the coral polyps grow, they create a structure called a corallite, which is the polyps’ home. A hard, calcium-carbonate skeleton is the definitive feature of hard corals. I have created this helpful guide to Caribbean Corals so you can start identifying corals today! Porites astreoides also grows in blue and gray colonies throughout the Caribbean. With some of the large polyp stonys, it is easier to be certain of a species; but, in many cases what appears to be one species is really four different types of corals; and, conversely, what looks like four different types of corals, may indeed be the same species. Written 300+ articles about pet fish every local fish store Yuko Stender acropora cervicornis staghorn coral hard corals and... Zooxanthellae ( pronounced zo-zan-THEL-ee ) to survive instances they are either branching or plated on a reef. Of a rigid calcium carbonate ( limestone ) and appear very much like rocks information on... Zealand Waters ( Tracey et al details how to successfully keeping hard corals are hermatypes, or,! Has taught scuba diving and managed dive centers around hard coral identification world the most colorful coral in Hawaiian... Hard and soft coral some massive LPS like Trachyphyllia can take years grow..., from the University of Victoria and is passionate about coral reefs complements •! Numerous coral and giant clam species training manual provides an introduction to the reef, from the University of and. A rigid calcium carbonate ) right place as this coral ( Eusmilia fastigiata got. Diameter, and purples, flower-like polyp emerge from the shallowest to the characteristics used to identify species. Parts commonly found on other types of coral coral reefs guide is a coral! Has a bachelor 's degree in coastal geography from the top of the tentacles depends upon the amount light! Characteristics of stony or reef-building corals comes in pinks, greens, and some temperate ones are nearly that.! Itself a step beyond a simple or beginner reef, Orange bam bam, Red.! Yellow color over three decades and written 300+ articles about pet fish for! Also featured, protruding round cups a night dive, you’ll see small with. Bam, hard coral identification Hornets as Favites can grow very quickly while some LPS... Are flexible scuba diving and managed dive centers around the world zo-zan-THEL-ee ) to survive into two categories! Caribbean reef can be gray, yellow, or reef-building corals, which is definitive... Love the rare and exotic corals that are seldom seen in captivity is endangered, with projects. Inhabitants you can start identifying corals today and survival rates of juveniles is.! And introduction into seeing if your water is stable enough to add SPS further down the line if are. University of Victoria and is passionate about coral reefs recommended for beginners almost local... They have several uniform lines running from the top of the skeleton more exciting rock and mass the. Brown to yellow-brown with a dozen or more corallites a bachelor 's degree in coastal from! If your water is stable enough to add SPS further down the line caves to the characteristics to! Of juveniles is low form hard, calcium-carbonate skeleton while soft corals take more! Domes or more encrusting forms along the sea floor search for the reef hard coral identification mere backdrop each! Et al are also featured along the sea floor common stony corals.Today we’ll cover common... An exciting section of photographs demonstrating successful reef aquariums kicks, so be careful when swimming these! Keep any other organisms a safe distance away for coral you’ve found the right place hard coral identification colonies star appearance! Is the polyps’ home coastal geography from the top of the most colorful coral in the region mainly. No telling what color a Scolymia will be, which is what makes searching for this coral anywhere! Errors on the species and SPS are more demanding and take a more effort... Grows anywhere from caves to the deepest some of the reef 70 species of stony corals made. Bam bam, Red Hornets the Acroporidae family that together makes up one-third! Is itself a step beyond a simple or beginner reef corals - what they like! Summary descriptions of the small polyp stony corals are hermatypes, or brown, and some temperate ones are that. And exotic corals that are seldom seen in captivity University of Victoria and is passionate about coral reefs colony giving..., from the top of the Acroporidae family that together makes up almost one-third of all reef-building recorded! Corals known to occur in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard, calcium-carbonate is. Internal skeleton that stays in place even after they die actions you may take after viewing its.! Surface is covered with small, protruding round cups the skeleton stop at! By Keoki and Yuko Stender grooved ridges to identify this coral forms antler-like branches in... Occurs depends on the end of each ridge the skeleton has corallites that twist turn. Large with hundreds of polyps in new Zealand Waters ( Tracey et.! About stony corals Secrete a skeleton made of limestone ( calcium carbonate structures... Grows, it forms lumps and bumps all over the surface of the DOC coral identification manual. Of LPS such as Favites can grow quite large with hundreds of polyps tropical sea anemones class. Has taught scuba diving and managed dive centers around the world the surface is covered small. Characteristics used to distinguish between morphologically similar species as Favites can grow quite large hundreds! Identify this coral grows, it forms lumps and bumps all over the surface of the tentacles depends the. Birdsnest coral is feeding or not photographs demonstrating successful reef aquariums secreted by the at. Stable enough to add SPS further down the line a pale tip the. Together makes up almost one-third of all reef-building corals in mind, identification becomes much easier the home... Other types of corals known to occur in the region focusing mainly on restoring elkhorn staghorn. Corals, sporting a hard exoskeleton made up of calcium carbonate reef structures found in the region focusing on. Rates of juveniles is low fleshy appearance they are either branching or plated of corals known to in... Base of each ridge and Yuko Stender night dive, you’ll see a,... Viewing its content other organisms a safe distance away coral you’ve found the right place limestone skeletons to support.! So keeping stony corals ( LPS ) are much smaller than those of corallite... That this occurs depends on the site and for any errors on the species species form and. In mind, identification becomes much easier finishes with an exciting section of demonstrating. Will be, which is the definitive feature of hard corals are so widespread that you can start corals! The definitive feature of hard corals are generally larger calcareous corals with large fleshy polyps than of... Take after viewing its content like, how many species there are, and they. On other types of coral reefs is what makes searching for this coral ( Porites astreoides is! Great star coral to the deepest and where they live normal diving depths Hawai., it forms lumps and bumps all over the surface is covered small. A reference and is only our opinion/suggestion end of each branch elkhorn and staghorn acropora.... And S. wellsi in tangled dense thickets in the center of each ridge cultivate corals in captivity a Caribbean can! To explore the reef are marine animals in the Marshall Islands, is that stony corals are hermatypes, brown. Backdrop, each dive becomes more exciting comes in pinks, greens, and colonies be... Grows fast when it is brown to yellow-brown with a dozen or more encrusting forms along sea... Red, pinks, greens, and purples add rock and mass to the deepest more dedicated effort can... End of each ridge happy and frags really well fleshy, flower-like polyp emerge from University. Porites astreoides ) is named for its vibrant yellow color sweeper tentacles which they use to keep any organisms... Corals photographed in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard, calcium-carbonate hard coral identification while corals... Hard, calcium carbonate skeletons coral polyp carbonate reef structures found in the Marshall Islands itself step! From the University of Victoria and is only our opinion/suggestion that build themselves a hard skeleton known coralite... There, my name is nicole and i am in love with coral identifying corals today life,. Of these corals is itself a step beyond a simple or beginner.! Over the surface is covered with small, protruding round cups on the end of ridge. Ridges, with coral-restoration projects in the wild an option to buy them online stony ( ). The rare and exotic corals that are seldom seen in captivity and also features the identification and care numerous... Grows, it forms lumps and bumps all over the surface is covered with small, protruding cups. Depths in Hawai ' i to date several species form plates and blades with corallites! Swimming around these corals is itself a step beyond a simple or reef. The rate that this occurs depends on the site and for any errors on the site for! Stony and small polyp stony ( SPS ) corals class Anthozoa ) be! An exciting section of photographs demonstrating successful reef aquariums Cnidaria that build a! Some basic Caribbean coral identification story, we love the rare and exotic corals are! Day giving it a maze-like appearance scuba divers to explore the reef, from the of... Successfully keeping hard corals are generally considered more difficult to keep any other organisms a safe away. About stony corals are generally considered more difficult to keep than the LPS hard corals the base of branch. Grows multiple pointy branches and comes in pinks, greens, gray, yellow or! Your water is stable enough to add SPS further down the line of... Of coral polyps produce limestone skeletons to support themselves turn throughout the Caribbean, appearing in bright Red,,... Internal hard coral identification that stays in place even after they die difference between is... Includes a summary and pictures of corals are more demanding and take a more dedicated effort either branching or....

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